Explain. By creating a society which places more value on actions that bring happiness, we could create a place where there is more common ground to be found.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Business ethics involve following business principles that entail morality in leadership as well as in several other aspects of businesses. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? Ethical dilemmas like this one occur every day in the business world. Posts about examples of utilitarianism in today’s society examples of utilitarianism ethics real life examples of utilitarianism examples of utilitarianism in healthcare examples of utilitarianism in business exa written by T h e o • p h i l o g u e What factors go into each side of the equation?  Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Quantitative utilitarianism, or Benthamite utilitarianism, is a branch of utilitarianism that was developed out of the work of Jeremy Bentham (1747-1832) – an English philosopher, economist, political scientist, legal scholar, and social reformer. What is the importance of utilitarianism in business? 3. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS).  Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). In the workplace, though, utilitarian ethics are difficult to achieve. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar.  Ashwin L. Rao et al., Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic (NCAA) Athletes: a 9-Year Analysis of the NCAA Resolutions Database, Sports Health 7(5): 452-457 (2015). In the eyes of a HR manager, by taking action the majority of the stakeholders would benefit from a moral organisation adhering to their code of conduct, conducting fairness in all of their business activities. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. An NFL player who plays 24 games increases the likelihood of premature death by 16%. Utilitarianism is a consequential moral theory, which means that the question of any action being morally right or wrong depends on the good or bad effects it produces. Amber is a resin material that is formed from fossilized conifer tree sap during years of constant pressure and heat. Explain. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. This is one of the limitations of utilitarianism. What facts would you weigh in making the decision? For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship.  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). In business contexts, utilitarianism implies an obligation for businesses to do what they can to act in a way that maximizes happiness and minimizes suffering. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. So, although utilitarianism is arguably the most reason-based approach to determining right and wrong, it has obvious limitations. But it received both its name and its clearest statement in the writings of English philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). 3352 (Dec. 2016).  Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.. At work, you display utilitarianism when you take actions to ensure that the office is a positive environment for your co-workers to be in, and then make it so for yourself. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury….  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm).  Michael L. Alosco et al., Repetitive Head Impact Exposure and Later-Life Plasma Total Tau in Former National Football League Players, Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring, 7: 33-40 (2017). Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020).  Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? utilitarianism meaning: 1. the system of thought that states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is…. Utilitarianism vs. Deontology vs. Virtue Ethics. A 2016 study found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years in the league. Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that suggests that the best actions are those that maximize utility. But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone the most ethical one. Some of these are high impacts comparable to those experienced in high school and college games. The key passage from this book: "The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals utility, or the greatest happiness principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. However, if you choose to do something morally wrong—even if legal—then your happiness and that of your colleagues, will decrease. In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from consuming a product or service. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. The demands of hard utilitarianism can be layered onto the ethical decision faced by the College Board in their courtroom battle with KDCP. like hedonism in that it has the importance of happiness for all humans as its core belief Utilitarianism holds that an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce sadness, or the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the actor but that of everyone affected by it. It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war. Examples of utilitarianism criticisms are outlined below: “Utilitarianism is not concerned with justice.” From a utilitarianism perspective, if the good coming from the action outweighs the bad effects, then it may be considered as a good one. > “Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility. Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. Work in the 21st-century workplace is no longer merely a means to an end; it is meaningful and calls upon people’s ambitions, beliefs and passions. It is a universal concept that all of us can understand. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12.  Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). "Utility" is defined in various ways, … However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. Therefore, added benefits of rule utilitarianism values justice and includes beneficence at the same time. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism would favour a more coercive approach if this is more effective.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Explain. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). A hard … The word total is important here: if you act ethically according to utilitarianism, you’re not maximizing yourhappiness, but the total happiness of the whole human race. Is this an ethical issue? See more. Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question “What ought a person to do?” The answer is that a person ought to act so as to produce the best consequences … Children between the ages of 9 and 14 make up the largest cohort of football players in the U.S. Utilitarianism analysis is concerned with whether or not the decision made lead to the greatest good for the greatest number of people (De George, 2010). Bry’s answer is that only the football players are being paid to do this “for our entertainment.”. Explain. Ideal utilitarianism. Are you aware of comparable situations around the world where individuals and corporations that wish to be moral buyers should be similarly wary, knowing that their purchase price might aid the seller’s bad acts? https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game. Utilitarian? In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season.  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). And the airline benefits, too.  Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020); Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. “Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.” Players suffer bruises, lacerations, torn muscles, dislocated shoulders, torn knee ligaments, broken bones, internal organ damage, and, occasionally, even paralysis. They’re healthy … And people say that’s crazy. The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. Business-, and the neuropathological diagnostic criteria are no shades of gray—either something is wrong or it is them. 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